Nonprofit organizations and concepts aligned with Circular City idea

  1. Ellen MacArthur Foundation - Circular Economy
  2. Jacque Fresco - Venus Project
  3. Ebenezer Howard - Garden city movement





Ellen MacArthur Foundation


The Ellen MacArthur Foundation is a registered in the UK charity, launched  in 2010, which aims to inspire a generation to re-think, re-design & build a positive future through the framework of a circular economy. Their Mission is to accelerate the transformation to a circular economy.

Dame Ellen MacArthur - Circular economy advocate. After setting a record for sailing around the world, Dame Ellen MacArthur has turned her attention toward creating a more "circular" economy -- where resources and power recirculate and regenerate. [Dame Ellen MacArthur Talk on TED2015 The surprising thing I learned sailing solo around the world


The Ellen MacArthur Foundation works to inspire a generation to re-think, re-design and build a positive future circular economy. An action-oriented set of methods, mindsets and thought starters to help innovators design circular solutions that are fit for the future.

Defining a vision according to the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, a circular city embeds the principles of a circular economy across all of its functions, establishing an urban system that is regenerative and restorative by design. In such a city, the idea of waste is eliminated, with assets kept at their highest levels of utility at all times and the use of digital technologies a vital process enabler. A circular city aims to generate prosperity and economic resilience for itself and its citizens, while decoupling value creation from the consumption of finite resources.

A circular city encourages the use of systems thinking to provide economic, social and environmental benefits for its citizens, while also looking to improve the quality of life.



Jacque Fresco - Venus Project



The Venus Project funded in 1975 by Jacque Fresco, proposes a holistic approach with a global socio-economic system that utilizes the most current technological and scientific advances to provide the highest possible living standard for all people on Earth. The proposed system is called Resource Based Economy.

In a Resource Based Economy all goods and services are available to all people without the need for means of exchange such as money, credits, barter or any other means. For this to be achieved all resources must be declared as the common heritage of Earth’s inhabitants. Equipped with the latest scientific and technological marvels mankind could reach extremely high productivity levels and create abundance of resources.

Modern society has access to highly advanced technologies and can make available food, clothing, housing, medical care, a relevant educational system, and develop a limitless supply of renewable, non-contaminating energy such as geothermal, solar, wind and tidal.

It is now possible to have everyone on Earth enjoy a very high standard of living with all of the amenities that a prosperous civilization can provide. This can be accomplished through the intelligent and humane application of science and technology.

 The Venus Project advocates a transition from a monetary-based society to the eventual realization of a global resource-based economy. Resource Based Economy concerns itself with three main factors, namely Environmental, Technological and Human. 

Environment
From the time our biological senses start to develop, different environmental influences have impact on us to various degrees altering our perception of the world and thus our behavior. In a global Resource Based Economy most environments are designed to encourage creativity in all aspects of life. A systems approach to city design results in highly effective construction methods combined with minimum resources usage. In many places around the world the natural environment might determine the city design and construction methods. The cities would function as research and development centers, informing people all over the world about the latest scientific and technological developments as well as current global projects and events, acting as university cities.

Technology
Computers today replace human brains with electronic equipment that manipulates figures, makes programmed decisions, and gives instructions far more efficiently than any human. Cybernation is the linking of computers with automated systems. Eventually, the central cybernated systems will coordinate all of the machinery and equipment that serve the entire city, the nation and ultimately the world. One can think of this as an electronic autonomic nervous system extending into all areas of the social complex. To ensure the efficient operation of the city’s various functions, all of the processes and services are equipped with electronic environmental feedback sensors. 

Human Potential

Directing technology and resources toward problem solving for the benefit for all people and the planet, and updating our value system to correspond with the principles of this new direction. This, combined with education on how to relate to one another in a much more meaningful way, could considerably reduce both mental and physical stress and leave us free to explore and develop our abilities.



Garden city movement - Ebenezer Howard


The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture. The idea was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom.


Garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres (2,400 ha), planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six radial boulevards, 120 ft (37 m) wide, extending from the centre. The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 58,000 people, linked by road and rail. There were build few cities around the world following his principles quite successfully until this day.
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